Hard by the romantic banks of the Old Kaskaskia, (Okaw River) nestles the charming little city of Carlyle. Its history dates back over three quarters of a century. Its early inhabitants were the hardy sons of toil from the states of Indiana, Kentucky, Virginia, Ohio and Tennessee with a sprinkling at intervals of New England stock and pure Anglo-saxon imigrants. In later years came the thrifty German, and to-day we find the descendents of those frugal and industrious nationalities living in harmony, peace and prosperity. Passing from the scenes and changes of the earlier days, we will devote our attention mainly to the city of to-day. Our general history on Southern Illinois will refer more particularly to the original settlements and incidentally we may in the course of this record, for the purpose of elucidation, again call up some interesting reminisences of the past.

The city of Carlyle is situated on the west bank of Kaskaskia river forty-eight miles east of the city of St. Louis on the line of the B. & O. S. W. R. R. Its charming location on slightly elevated and rolling ground affords it excellent drainage facilities and delightful sites for residential purposes. The city contains many fine residences, public buildings and business blocks, notably, the residences of Mr. Gustave van Hoorebeke, a prominent attorney at law; Mr. R. N. Ramsay, a leading banker and State Treasurer of Illinois and many others. Among the public buildings the county court house deserves special mention. This building was erected in 1880 and subsequently enlarged and improved, so as to adapt it to the present requirements of the county authorities. It is located in the business centre of the city on the apex of a moderate elevation which slopes in every direction. Its grounds are shaded with magnificent forest growths of elm, oak and maple and it is traversed by fine gravel and granitold walks artistically laid out. The building is of brick, two stories and dome. In its interior arrangements the most approved modern plans have been adhered to.

Clinton County Court House in Carlyle

The public school was built in 1874, but largely increased in size in 1880 and now contains eight comfortable and well ventilated rooms. It is also of brick with modern conveniences.

Carlyle Public School

The Catholic parochial school, is a fine modern brick structure and attests the high appreciation of the church for educational development and progress.

The city contains six churches of various denominations: the Methodist Episcopal and the Roman Catholic congregations being the largest and most influential in religious circles.

Among the business blocks, that of the Schlafley Bros. and R. N. Ramsay's are the most conspicuous.

Many fine stores line the thoroughfares on the north and south sides of the public square and display a degree of commercial activity that is really commendable.

The Carlyle Hook and Ladder Company was organized in January 1869, and has attained a very high degree of proficiency; especially may this be observed since the installation of Carlyle's fine water supply system a few years ago. At first an immense water tank with a capacity of four thousand gallons and subsequently a stand pipe with double this capacity was erected and pump house supplied with duplicate engines having an h. p. capacity far in excess of the present requirements of the city's water supply service.


At an act of the legislature in 1824 Carlyle was made the county seat of Clinton on condition that twenty acres of land on present site be donated for the purpose. The deed of this land was made by Charles Slade and his wife Mary D. Slade and was recorded July 4th 1824. By an old record it appears that a village charter was granted in 1837. This was amended in 1853 and again in 1865 increasing the town's authority.

Steamboats navigated the Kaskaskia to this point in those days. The first boat which is known to try the experiment was named "The Belleville". The stage of water within recent years does not permit of steamboat navigation with any commercial advantage whatever.

The suspension bridge across the Kaskaskia at this point was constructed in 1860 by the Clinton county authorities at a cost of $45000. It was free to all residents of the county only for a number of years, but of recent years has become a public thoroughfare. It has a span of 280 feet in the clear with stone and brick towers some seventy feet in height from foundation. The cables are composed of parallel wire ribbons bound firmly together with the same material wound around at intervals and welded. It is a substantial and graceful structure and quite a unique feature of the city's surroundings.

Suspension Bridge Over the Kaskaskia River

Carlyle possesses some very important industrial establishments; a grist mill operated by the Carlyle Mill and Grain Company, the Carlyle Canning Co. and others that receive special mention in another part of the work devoted to Carlyle.

The name of the city was bestowed by the early English settlers in honor of Sir Thomas Carlyle, who in those days was very dear to the British nation on account of his great literary attainments.

Carlyle is surrounded by fertile agricultural districts and a prosperous farming community.

Its people are largely American born, the business and professional classes possessing in a marked degree enterprise and fine taste.

The present city government is composed of a Mayor, the honorable Robt. C:. Lambe; City Attorney, Mr. J. J. McGaffigan; City Clerk, Mr. Bacon; City Treasurer, Fred FeuIner; Police Magistrate, John Wade; City Marshal and Street Inspector, Wm. Rinesmith. The council is composed of two Aldermen from each of the three city wards.

Carlyle was incorporated as a city under the general state law May 9th, 1884. Its first officers under municipal organization were, Darius Kingsbury, Mayor; Saul F. Schaeffer, Clerk; Nick Wuller, Treasurer and Thos. E. Ford, Attorney.

The county officers are nearly all residents of the city and some of them closely identified with the city's progress and development, but for some reason, not clearly defined, failed to co-operate with the publishers of this work which received the support of fully three fourths of the business men and the approval of the press of Carlyle. The latter are tendered our sincere thanks for their kind consideration.

The newspapers have due notice and special mention in the columns of this work to which we add our lasting expressions of gratitude for their kindness.

Carlyle's future is full of promise and it remains unto her people to advance her material interests.

During our stay in the city we had the pleasure of witnessing a meeting of the "Old Settlers" of Clinton County. It was the eleventh annual meeting of the association and was quite in keeping with the old and new social conditions of this part of Illinois and of which Carlyle is the commercial center.

ROBT. C. LAMBE, Attorney at Law, Mayor of Carlyle. - The gentleman whose professional and public career form the immediate subject of our sketch is a native of the Emerald Isle. He came with his parents in early youth to this country and in subsequent years took a literary course and graduated at the Miami University, Ohio. He then entered the law office of Messrs . Buxton & White of this city. Having fully prepared himself in the legal field of theory and practice, he embarked into the profession of law, associating himself with Mr. W. W. White, an active and intelligent young attorney - a nephew of Judge A. H. White of this city. The subject of our sketch Mr. Robert C. Lambe has been a resident of Carlyle since 1880. He has held the position of Master of Chancery six years and was elected Mayor of Carlyle in 1893 for a term of two years, a position he now fills with great credit to himself and to the complete satisfaction of his fellow citizens. Mr. White, his associate, is located in the city of Denver Colo., where the firm maintain a law office and control a very fine clientage. Mr. Lambe is most favorably recognized in professional and court circles of Carlyle. In his official capacity he displays fine executive ability and is held in high esteem in social as well as business circles of Carlyle and throughout Clinton County. He is a member of the Masonic order, the K. of P., and Modern Woodmen of America.

WHITE & BACON, Abstracters and Examiners of Titles, Real Estate and Loan Agents, Ninth Street, Opposite County Court House. - A title, to be of any value, must be perfect, and should a transfer of property necessitate the examination of the title, it is always a wise policy to place the matter in the hands of reliable examiners. Such may be found in Messrs. White and Bacon, whose honorable and efficient record dates back nearly thirty years. The business had its inception in 1865 under the firm name of Wightman, Smith & Buxton and changed consecutively to Othick & Dew, Buxton White & Othick, Buxton & White, A. H. White, and finally to the present firm in March, 1892. Judge A. H. White being identified with the business since 1872. This firm's abstracts are the standard for the county. They have a most complete transcript of the Clinton County records, including the city of Carlyle and all other towns and cities of the county. Local and non-residents seeking abstracts may with perfect confidence and safety place their interests in this firm's hands and rely upon absolute accuracy on their reports. They are also real estate agents. Make collections and loan money on advantageous terms, executing all commissions entrusted to them with care and dispatch. Judge White was born and raised in lire vicinity of Carlyle. He has been County Judge and has practiced law for many years in all the courts of the state, and is recognized authority on all questions involving the legal rights of property owners and investors in real estate. His associate Mr. Bacon was formerly connected with the office as clerk three years prior to the present co-partnership. He was born and raised in Carlyle and served on the Government Coast Survey five years. He holds the commission of Notary Public and is an active young business man.

G. H. BERGER, Dealer in Pure Drugs, Medicines Chemicals, Paints, Oils, Glass, Perfumery, Soaps, Brushes, Combs, Notions, Etc. - Was born in Monroe County, Illinois, on the 22d of August, 1854. His father, Matthew Berger, and his mother, nee Martha Andrews, were of German extraction. The fattier died when the subject of this sketch was still in infancy. During his early years he remained on the farm and received a common school education and at the age of twelve he became an apprentice in pharmacy under Dr. A. Wetmore of Waterloo, Ill. This was in 1868. He continued his studies two years and in 1870 after the death of his mother, his employer released him of his apprenticeship. He then went to St. Louis where he continued his studies in which he made rapid progress and was soon fitted for his chosen profession. In 1874 he was admitted as a qualified pharmacist upon examination before the St. Louis Board of Pharmacy and received a license to act as assistant in pharmacy in the state of Missouri. In 1875 he came to Carlyle where he established in business with his brother Matthew, under the firm name of Berger Brothers, engaged in the lines of drugs and medicines and boots and shoes. The

location of the store being north side of Public Square. This enterprise continued until 1819 when the lines of groceries and hardware were added to the business and their brother Henry Berger became connected with the firm, and together they prosecuted the business for a period of two years. This combination did not prove successful and as a consequence the grocery and hard ware department was disposed of to the firm of Allen & Cook, the brother Henry retiring. Matthew and George continued under the original plan until 1890. In the meantime, George married on June 26th, 1889, Miss Lizzie Klein, third daughter of Mr. Peter Klein. Now as a matter of expediency the firm dissolved on Aug. 3rd, 1890, and the brothers continued in their respective lines of business at separate stores, Mr. M. Berger remaining at the old stand on the north side Public Square with the boot and shoe department and Mr. G. H. Berger located his drug business on the adjacent corner, 9th and Fairfax streets, one of the most eligible business locations in the City. G. H. Berger is very popular among all classes of the community. He was city Treasurer and he is and has been a member of the City Council three terms.

JOHN RUF, Editor and Proprietor, “Union Banner". - The subject of this sketch was born in the Duchy of Baden, Germany, November 26, 1842 and came to America with his father in 1852. Mr. Ruf, sire settled in St. Louis where the son John grew up to manhood receiving his education in the private schools of that city. Upon leaving school our subject learned the printer's trade in St. Louis and was a compositor from 1862 until 1869. During the latter year he went to San Francisco, Cal where he also worked at his trade. Returning in 1872 Mr. Ruf came to Carlyle where he found employment in the office of the Clinton County “Pioneer" until 1876. He then established the Southern Illinois Zeitung a weekly paper, the only organ of the German

population in Clinton county. In 1886 he purchased a half interest in the "Union Banner" in which Mrs. M. J. Peterson owned the other half, her husband having founded the paper in 1863, Subsequently Mr. Ruf became sole proprietor in 1894. Politically, Mr. Ruf is a firm advocate of Republican principles. In April, 1861, when President Lincoln issued his first call for volunteers, the name of John Ruf was enrolled as a member of Company A Second Missouri Infantry; he was mustered out in the following August. In his social relations Mr. Ruf is identified with the K. of H., I. O. O. F., M. W. of A., A. O. U. W. and G. A. R. He is a quiet unassuming gentleman with a host of friends.

GROSS BROS. & CO., Dry Goods, Clothing, Shoes, and Gent's Furnishing Goods, etc., Fairfax street Opposite Court House. -- The facilities enjoyed by the people of Carlyle and vicinity for the purchase of the best the market affords in all lines of goods are equal in point of quality, variety and volume to any city in Southern Illinois. Among its business men, the reliable firm Gross Bros. & Co. occupy the front rank and bring to bear long experience and ability in the conduct of their business. The brothers Henry and John C. Gross took this business in 1891, a stand that had been occupied by their predecessor upward of thirty years before. The building has dimensions 35x60 feet, two stories, and is completely stocked with fine lines of dry goods and notions, clothing and furnishings, hats and caps, boots and shoes etc. The display of goods inside and in the plate glass show windows is very attractive and the stock full and comprehensive in each department. Two polite and attentive sales people assist at the counters. This is one of the model stores of Southern Illinois and the leader in its line in the City of Carlyle. Mr. Henry Gross is a native of Cape Girardeau Mo. His brother John C. was born in the city of New Orleans La. but they are both residents of Carlyle since 1865. Henry has had an experience of seventeen years in the lines represented and also in the grocery business. His brother although only three years connected with the present business displays a natural adaptability in the conduct of mercantile affairs. Their brother Albert F. Gross is proprietor of the "Big Corner Store".

"BIG CORNER STORE" Retail and Wholesale, Albert F. Gross. - The commendable energy and business tact displayed by the merchants of the city of Carlyle is seen on every hand. A conspicuous representative of this element among them is found in the person of Mr. Albert F. Gross, proprietor of the Big Corner Store, located northeast corner Public Square. This enterprise was founded in 1883 under the firm name of Gross & Wade. In March 1894 Mr. Wade withdrew and Mr. Dross has continued the business with deservedly great success. The premises have a frontage of thirty-five feet on Fairfax street and a depth of one hundred and twenty feet, with basement of the same area. This immense store space is completely stocked with carefully selected lines of staple and fancy groceries, hardware, queensware, sporting goods and

miscellaneous household commodities. Farm and garden products are also carried in stock during their seasons. Four assistants are employed. Mr. Gross has had twenty-two years experience in the business, he traveled eleven years for McCord, Nave & Co, wholesale grocers of St. Louis, Kansas City and Chicago and was also five years with the reliable old house of F. Smith & Son, St. Louis wholesale grocers. He was born in Old Cape Girardeau, Mo. and was raised in Carlyle of which he has been a resident since 1864. He was formerly a member of Western Commercial Travelers Association. He now carries a policy for $5000 insurance in Massachusetts Mutal Life Co. Springfield Mass. and owns five hundred shares valuable mining stock. He is an active, energetic and honorable man, self made in every respect and a public spirited citizen.

W. P. GORDON, M. D., East Side of Public Square. - The subject of our sketch is of Scotch-Irish extraction, the Scotch largely predominating. He was born in 1844 in the state of Mississippi and came north in 1864 to avoid the consequences of the rebellion and avail himself of the facilities for the study of the medical profession which he had determined to pursue through natural selection; members of his family for many generations back, had been physicians of prominence both in Edinburgh Scotland and in this country. His father and six brothers were physicians; the former is still living and actively engaged in the practice. Two younger brothers are preparing themselves in the same noble profession. Dr. Gordon has four nephews practicing physicians, two of whom, R. E. and T. B. Gordon studied medicine in his office.  The doctor has himself been in active practice upwards of thirty years.  He has paid special attention to diseases of women and children for the past fifteen years; also of the nose and throat.  He took a two year course in medicine, 1866 to 1867, at the St. Louis Medical College and graduated in the latter

year. In 1877 he graduated from the Missouri Medical College with high honor and commenced practice in Ramsay, Fayette County, Ill. where he remained some time. He is a member of the National Association of Railroad Surgeons, Illinois State Medical society, Central Illinois State Medical Society, Clinton County Medical Society and he is Surgeon for the B. & O. S. W. Railroad. He is an active Mason, thirty years, a member of and examining physician for the A. O. U. W and M. W. of A. for the past five years. He is a charter member of the K. of P. and Home Forum of Carlyle; of the latter organization he is examining physician. He has recently become identified with the I. O. O. F. Hs is also an earnest member of the M. E. church and has been a communicant upwards of thirty years.

PARKER and SMITH, Manufacturers of Cornmeal, Flour and Ground Feed, Fairfax Street, West End. - An important branch of industry in Carlyle is that of the manufacture of cornmeal, buck wheat, rye and graham flour and ground feed, which is well represented by the above firm. The business was founded September 1891, and since the start has enjoyed a liberal patronage. The firm use steam power, run one set of burrs and a Kelly Duplex, No. 3 crusher. The output is two hundred bushels wheat, two hundred bushels of meal and crushing from three hundred to five hundred bushels of feed daily. The plant covers an area 60x135 feet and it is completely equipped and carefully managed and is owned by the firm, whose members are Moses Parker and John G. Smith. Mr. Parker has been a resident of Carlyle since 1876. He was formerly traveling passenger agent for the C. & A. and Fort Scott and Gulf railroads and also dealt in wire fencing, which latter business he is still interested in. Mr. Smith has been a resident twelve years. The firm handle the Champion Harvesting machines and occupy a warehouse for that purpose in another part of the city. They also do considerable business in all kinds of grain feed in which their facilities for procuring large supplies are equal to any demand made upon them. They are industrious, painstaking and strictly reliable in their business relations and the success of their enterprise is mainly due to these sterling business qualifications.

"CONSTITUTION AND UNION." - In July, 1862, a stock company composed of the leading and influential Democrats of Clinton County was formed for the purpose of establishing a newspaper to advocate the principles of the party. James Barkley was chosen editor and business manager. He continued in charge of the paper for two years, when he was succeeded by Mr. Zophor Case, who conducted the paper for about ten years. The stockholders then secured the service of Alfred Padon to conduct the paper. He held control until May 1st, 1868, when the stockholders made arrangements with Hardin Case to take the office under a lease of five years, During the life of the lease Mr. Case purchased the stock of the "Constitution & Union" and thereby became sole owner of the paper. On the 1st of January, 1868, Geo. E. Doying was taken in as a partner, which continued until February, 1874, when John Schuester was admitted to

the firm. In 1876 Mr. Doying retired from the firm. The firm of Case & Schuester continued for nearly a year, when Schuester retired. On the first of January, 1880, a half interest in the paper was sold to M. E. Drum. The firm of Case & Drain continued until the 15th of June, 1881, when Drum's interest was purchased by Case, and he continued the publication of the C. and U. until July 4th, 1881, when he sold it to Moore and Shoupe. This firm conducted the paper until July, 1885, when Moore sold his interest to R. H. Norfolk. Mr. Norfolk remained with the paper until his death, which occurred on January 3rd, 1892. In March, 1892, T. D. Shoupe purchased the interest of Mr. Norfolk and associated with him in the business as partner his son, R. M. Shoupe, and together these gentlemen are at the present time engaged in editing and conducting this journal which is unquestionably one of the strong exponents of Democratic principles in this part of Illinois. It is also the official medium of the County of Clinton and the city of Carlyle, Mr. T. D. Shoupe has been a resident of Carlyle thirteen years; a native of Belleville St. Clair Co., Ill., he learned the printer's and carpenter's trades both at home and in the city of St. Louis. He was connected with the St. Louis "Republic" fifteen years. The work of a compositor becoming too trying upon his health he embarked in journalism and in 1861 removing to Tamaroa, Perry County Ill., publishing the  "The True American" for a few months; subsequently in New Athens, St. Clair County, he edited and published the "New Athens Era" for several years and also served as town clerk and postmaster. Mr. Shoupe then returned to St. Louis and worked at the case in the office of the St. Louis "Republic" until 1881. Thus we have briefly outlined an honorable and industrious record of a self made man and useful citizen. His son and business associate Mr. R. M. Shoupe is an intelligent young journalist whose accession to an interest in the paper has been fought with many advantages in the conduct of the business.

M. BERGER, Boots and Shoes. -- A leading representative of this important business in the city of Carlyle had its inception in 1873, Mr. Berger inaugurating the enterprise and was joined by his brother Mr. G. H. Berger who added a drug department in 1875. The rapid expansion of this dual mercantile combination in time necessitated increased facilities and larger quarters. Accordingly in 1890 the brothers dissolved partnership and continued in their respective lines at separate locations. Mr. M. Berger remaining at the old stand on Fairfax street and his brother locating on an adjacent corner of the same street. Mr. Berger's store is neatly and appropriately arranged and

fitted for the convenience of his patrons and the display of his goods, the latter comprising a very select line of ladies, gentleman's, youth's and children's footwear in all grades and styles. He buys his stock from jobbers and manufacturers of national reputation. The store is eligibly located, in dimensions 20x80 feet and very attractive in appearance. He has one polite assistant. Mr. Berger has been a prominent resident of this city twenty-four years. He is a native of Monroe County Ill, and was formerly engaged in farming. He has held the position of City Treasurer and owns a comfortable residence.

BANKING HOUSE OF RUFUS N. RAMSAY, Farm Loans a Specialty, Cor. Franklin and Eighth Sts. - There is no single feature of our commercial system that plays a mere important part in facilitating the transaction of business and in promoting safe investment than banking. Prominent among the leading banks of Illinois is that of Rufus N. Ramsay. The enterprise had its inception in 1871 under the firm name of Ramsay & Seiter and since their dissolution Mr. R. has conducted it with energy and sound judgment. Those in need of financial aid will find this bank prepared to make the most liberal terms, making advances on approved collateral, etc. Mr. Ramsay extends to customers every possible facility and convenience consistent with safe banking. Besides a thorough business training and long experience in commercial life, Mr. Ramsay has been clerk of Clinton County and held other positions of public trust and responsibility. He is now the Custodian of the State Treasury. He is interested in many important business enterprises. His bank holds a leading position among the solid and responsible financial institutions of the state and fully merits the confidence of the community and the wide popularity he has obtained in Southern Illinois. Mr. B. H. Niehoff is the cashier assisted by Mr. D. N. Nighswander, both gentlemen being well fitted for the important duties of their positions. The bank has correspondence with the La Fayette hank of St. Louis and the Atlas National Bank of Chicago.

HENRY HESS, Foreign and Domestic Wines, Liquors and Cigars, also the Celebrated Cabinet, Keg and Bottled Beer, N. W. Corner Public Square. - It would be a difficult matter to find a public resort in Carlyle held in greater popularity than that of Mr. Henry Hess. The business was established by Mr. Hess in 1871 and by reason of his long residence in Carlyle which covers a period of upwards of forty years, he holds the confidence of all who know him. Mr. Hess has held positions of trust in the City Council and School Board and at one time published a newspaper. He conducts his business upon the most approved modern principles, with a view to supplying the best the market affords and thoroughly understands the requirements of his numerous patrons. His place is the resort of the leading citizens of Carlyle and is designed and fitted specially for their comfort and entertainment. Mr. Henry Bender is the manager and confidential assistant a gentleman of wide experience and business ability, who is very popular in the community. He is a native of Missouri, but has been a resident of Carlyle for a number of years. This house is the leading one in its line in Carlyle and handles the standard brands of bottled beer, notably A. B. C. Bohemian and A. B. C. Muenchener. Mr. Bender is a nephew of Mr. Hess. He is a director of the Carlyle Fishing and Hunting Club. He is also Vice Commander in the Grand Legion of the select Knights of America.

CARLYLE FURNITURE COMPANY, Dealers in Furniture, Carpets, Wall Paper, Window Shades, etc. and Undertaker. - The facilities enjoyed by the people of Carlyle and vicinity for the purchase of the best and most desirable grades of furniture, carpets, bedding, wall paper, window shades, curtains, etc. are unequalled, by reason of the existence here of such a live and progressive house as that of the Carlyle Furniture Co. This Company was organized and incorporated under the Illinois state law in 1886 with an ample capital and Mr. T. B. Volmer, as manager. At the start the manufacture of patent folding beds was a feature of the business but this was discontinued owing to freight discriminations. The premises occupied are large and commodious, having dimensions 50x120 feet two stories and conveniently arranged. The furniture ware rooms are on the first floor.  In the latter is carried a very complete stock of caskets, coffins, funeral goods and supplies of all kinds. For conducting funerals they have the very best facilities including an experienced funeral conductor and elegant hearses. Mr. T. B. Volmer is a German by birth. He came to this country in 1867 and after remaining in New York a while came west locating in St. Louis and subsequently came here. He has been a resident of Carlyle for eighteen years and is recognized in business and social circles as a reliable merchant and a public spirited citizen. He has served three terms in the City Council.

WILLIAM DEFFENDERFER, Restaurant and Ice Cream Parlor, Fairfax Street, Opposite Court House. - This enterprise was established as recently as in April of the present year. It has already gained wide popularity by reason of the painstaking care in management coupled with the determination of the proprietor and his good lady to dispense only the best products of the market to their patrons and extend the most courteous attention to visitors at the establishment. The place is central and inviting. The stock carried is in all respects first-class, comprising pure ice cream, cakes and confections, cigars and tobacco, fresh bread and buns. In the restaurant is the menu supplied 'a la carte.' The place is the resort of the elite of Carlyle and vicinity. Mr. Wm.  Deffenderfer is from Olney Ill. He is a railroad carpenter by occupation. His lady is the efficient manager of the restaurant and its success is due to her well directed efforts and its continued success is assured. Mr. Albert Simmons assists in the management. Miss Mattie, a daughter, is the saleslady and is quite popular with the patrons of the house.

JOHN J. MCGAFFIGAN, Councillor at Law, City Attorney for Carlyle. – The progress of a community depends not so much on the natural advantages it offers as upon its members who advocate the principles of modern progress and development. Such is the subject of our sketch who was born in Lynchburg, Va., December 14th, 1852. He came with his family to Clinton County in early youth, and was reared in Irishtown Township, attending the schools of his neighborhood. In later years he was a student in Blackburn University, Macoupin County, Ill., and afterwards attended the Southern Illinois Normal School, Carbondale. His studies completed, he engaged in school teaching, an avocation he pursued for seven years. During the last year of this period he was superintendent of the schools of Carlyle. At the same time and one year subsequently he read law in the office of Messrs. Murray & Andrews of Carlyle. He was examined for admission to the bar before the Appellate Court in February, 1886, and admitted before the Supreme Court at Mount Vernon, May 1st of the same year. Opening an office in Carlyle, Mr. McGaffigan has since conducted an extensive practice in law. In the spring of l886 he was elected city attorney for Carlyle. He is a member of the Board of Education and has served as president of that body. Mr. McGaffigan devotes his attention to general practice and has an excellent knowledge of every phase of legal procedure. He is a gentleman of refinement and an honorable professional man and a public spirited citizen. In politics he is a staunch Democrat and has taken an active part in behalf of his party ever since he attained his majority. He has been a delegate to the County, Senatorial and State Conventions for a number of years, He was elected Chairman of the Democratic Central Committee of Clinton Co. in spring of 1892 and largely through his efforts perfected the most complete organization of his party in the county, which secured the largest plurality for it the county has ever given.

MRS. JENNIE SHARP, Books, Stationery, School Supplies, Etc. - A business occupation to which a lady is especially adapted, is that of dealing in books, stationery and kindred lines of goods. In this connection we take pleasure in passing favorable comment upon Mrs. Jennie Sharp's enterprise which came under her control two years ago by purchase from Mrs. E. B. Webster who preceeded her some twelve years in the conduct of the business. The stand is an eligible one on the east side of the Public Square. Mrs. Sharp carries a very select and highly diversified stock of goods, embracing the productions of popular authors, fine stationery, school books and supplies, artists materials, office supplies, toys, dolls, etc. She is a lady of education and manages her business with care and good judgment, resulting in securing for her wide popularity and success. Mrs. Sharp has been a resident of Carlyle nearly all her life and is highly esteemed in social as well as business circles. She has a lady assistant. The store is neat and inviting, conducted upon strict business principles and a decided convenience to the people of Carlyle and vicinity by reason of the great variety of useful and necessary articles offered for sale at reasonable prices.

FRED. HEITMEIER Manufacturer and Dealer in Boots and Shoes; E. G. Heitmeier, Custom. Boot and Shoemaker, South of the Public Square.--This old and reliable house was founded in 1854 and during the forty years of its existence the proprietor, Mr. Fred Heitmeier has steadily grown in the confidence and esteem of his patrons who are numbered among the leading citizens of Carlyle and vicinity. His stock is so highly diversified that the purchaser can always find a comfortable fit and have the assurance of best quality for money spent. Rubber foot wear is carried and a specialty is made of custom shoes for ladies and gents. A repair department is also maintained under his son Mr. E. G. Heitmeier, a gentleman of experience and skill in this branch of industrial art. The store fittings and shop equipment are very complete. Mr. Heitmeier bears the honor of being the oldest merchant manufacturer in Carlyle. He is a German by birth, but has been on American soil since 1845. He spent considerable time in St. Louis and New Orleans, working at his trade before coming to Carlyle. During his residence here he has been closely identified with the city's commercial progress and development. He started business with a capital of $50 and to-day he owns his place of business and considerable other property in Carlyle and a fine farm in the immediate vicinity. He has held the position of School Director, has been a member of the Town Board several terms and County Supervisor two years. He is a Mason and an active member of the K. of H - a public spirited citizen and an enterprising merchant. His son, Mr. E. G. Heitmeier, who is mentioned in the context is a young tradesman of ability and skill. He learned the shoemaker's craft under his father's guidance and has been in business on his own account since 1888, occupying a portion of his father's store. He has attained a wide reputation for excellent work and has met with deservedly great success. He is industrious and energetic and owns a comfortable residence. He was born and raised in Carlyle and is a member of the M. W. of A.

CARLYLE STAVE CO. J. S. Patterson, Manager. - This business was established two years ago under the firm name of Whitney & Patterson. Mr. G. A. Whitney sold his interest in June of the present year, to Mr. Patterson. The plant is located on the east bank of the Kaskaskia near the B. & O. S. W. railroad. The mills and yards cover an area of five acres. The mills are supplied with a complete modern equipment, including too separate boiler batteries aggregating 105 horse-power and all necessary unproved machinery utilized in the manufacture of staves and hoops, rims, hubs and spokes, also hardwood lumber. The raw material is obtained in the forests skirting the old Kaskaskia river south of Vandalia. Elm is the wood mostly used. From twenty-five to thirty hands are employed and the closest inspection is given to all the work turned out. Mr. Patterson gives his personal attention to details and the reputation of the house is steadily gaining in the estimation of those in need of its products. The principal markets are St. Louis and Kansas City Mo, for hoops and staves; hubs, rims and spokes go eastward. The plant's capacity daily amounts to 30000 hoops, 30000 staves, 100 sets of rims and 3000 hubs; the latter product however, is only manufactured during the winter season. Mr. Patterson the manager prides himself upon his ability to promptly supply every demand made upon his house and quotes prices that defy the sharpest competition. He is from Defiance Ohio, where he was formerly engaged in the manufacture of hickory rims for buggies. His enterprise is one of the most useful industries in Southern Illinois and a most potent factor in Carlyle's progress. Mr. John Behner, junior partner in the business, is a gentleman of extended experience in the lumber manufacture and widely known to the lumber men of the west. He has the overseeing of the saw-mill.

JOHN WADE, Police Magistrate. - The gentleman whose name heads this sketch is a Pennsylvanian by birth and education. He has been a resident of Carlyle since 1847and enjoys the distinction of being one of her oldest and best known officials. He is a mechanic by trade and for a period after his arrival in this city was engaged in farming in the vicinity. Mr. Wade's first official position was that of Justice of the Peace, to which office he was elected in 1869 at Buxton Ill., and subsequently in the city of Carlyle both as Justice of the Peace and the position he now holds, that of Police Magistrate; his official duties in the latter covering a period of over twenty years. Mr. Wade owns a farm eight miles north of Carlyle besides his residence and other property in the city. He is a public spirited citizen, an efficient officer and a popular man. He is closely identified with the development and progress of his adopted city. He is a fearless advocate of political reform in low as well as in high governmental circles.

O. G. SINCLAIR, Merchant Tailor, Fairfax Street. - Among the representatives of merchant tailoring who have contributed largely to the elevation of the taste of the people of Carlyle and vicinity to what constitutes the correct modes in wearing apparel we make mention of Mr. O. G. Sinclair who established business here in 1878. From its inception his enterprise has been conducted with such good judgment that it has gained for him a wide reputation and he is the most popular in his line to this city. Mr. Sinclair was born and raised at Bellaire, Ohio. He learned his trade in St. Louis. He employs two assistants constantly and more during the busy seasons. He carries a select stock of fine woolens and suitings of American and Imported English, French and German fabrics, embracing the newest styles and patterns as well as the standard goods generally in demand by those more conservative in their dress. Mr. Sinclair is also agent for the celebrated Kohrinoor Laundry of Vincennes, Ind., and Lungstras Dying establishment of St. Louis. He owns a house and lot in Lower Carlyle and half a block in Upper Carlyle and his residence. He is a member of the School Board, a member of the select Knights of America and of the A. O. U. W.

M. BARKLEY, Teacher of Music. - In this age of refinement and culture the "art divine" is a legacy handed down from the early masters well worthy of the highest consideration. Mr. Barkley's unique methods and original conceptions in teaching are entirely new and decidedly effective in preparing a pupil to comprehend the inspiring influence of tone and harmony and in training vocal powers to a perfect control of compass and pure symphony in the mechanical execution through the medium of musical instruments the same is faithfully imparted to the pupil. His pupils entering other schools invariably pass satisfactory examination. Their training is graduated from fixed principles which are akin to mathematical perfection and where fully understood are the key to success in the musical art. Schools for musical instruction are usually conducted upon the class plan but Mr. Barkley gives only individual instruction, by lessons. His studio is at his residence. He was born at Georgetown, Ky, and raised in Carlyle where he has had his home since 1861. His first occupation in life was teaching school. He was first assistant, his father being the principal in the public school of Carlyle while yet in his teens and afterwards was principal of Jackson Academy in Jackson Mo. county seat of Gasconade county. His preliminary education was obtained in the public schools. Further than that he is self educated and has always inclined to the study of music in which he has become eminently proficient. He is Chief Forester and Musical Director of the local lodge, M. W. of A. He is the bosom friend of Fred. Lax, the celebrated soloist of Sousa's Band. Mr. Barkley handles pianos, organs and other musical instruments, also sheet music and musical merchandise generally.

J. M. YUNKER, Dealer in Lumber, Lath, Doors, Sash and Blinds; Paints, Oils and Lime, Fairfax Street West End. - The lumber interests of a growing town are of such an important character that to slight their mention would seriously injure our record in this review of the commercial affairs of Southern Illinois. The city of Carlyle has several representatives in the lumber business, but none that hold a higher rank for efficiency and commercial standing than the establishment of Mr. J. M. Yunker. This enterprise had its inception at the village of Breese in 1859. Removal was made to this city fifteen years ago and with a wider field for business development, Mr. Yunker has scored a gratifying success. His yards and residence on Fairfax street in the west end cover half a city block in area. The yards are well stocked with lumber in the rough and dressed, lath, shingles, doors, sash and blinds, builders' materials, paints, oils, lime, cement, etc. He contemplates removal to more commodious quarters. Employment is given to two experienced assistants and one lumber team. Mr. Gus. Yunker, a son of the principal, assists in the management. Besides being the owner of the property occupied for business and residence purposes, Mr. Yunker is the possessor of several fine grain farms in the vicinity of Carlyle. He was formerly engaged in the contracting and building business, and he is recognized as a businessman of ability and wide experience.

HENRY F. HEITMEIER, Manufacturer of Harness and Saddlery, and Dealer in a General Line of Horse Goods; Carriage Trimming and Fine Work a Specialty, South Side of Square. - Mr. Heitmeier has attained a wide reputation for excellent work and fair dealing. His store and shop are well stocked and fitted with every convenience. The specialty of this house is the manufacture to order of anything in the line of harness-making at very reasonable prices. Mr. H. is an adept harness maker, having done journeyman's work in the prominent St. Louis' houses of Hammel Harness Co., Wm. Homaner Saddlery Co. and others of equal note. He established the business in Carlyle sixteen years ago and has achieved well deserved success. He was born and raised in Carlyle. Ills. His father, an old citizen, is engaged in the boot and shoe industry. Mr. H. is an enterprising merchant and a public spirited citizen, a member of the A. O. U. W. and the K. of H. His success is due to care and skill in the conduct of his business and the exercise of honorable methods in his relations with patrons.

WM. SIPPEL, Manufacturer of Cigars, Corner Fairfax and 12th Street. - A leading representative of the cigar industry in the city of Carlyle is the reputable house of Win. Sippel. The enterprise had its inception as far back as 1877, when Mr. Adam Sippel established the business and conducted it until his death; his son William, the present proprietor, succeeding him October 11th, 1893. The business had flourished under the father's direction and the son, trained to the business under his guidance, has with equal energy achieved well deserved success. Employment is given to three experienced cigar makers, Mr. Sippel personally supervising the product of the factory. Prior to embarking in the business on his own account he worked in both eastern and western factories. Mr. Sippel uses only the best imported and domestic leaf and is prepared at all times to duplicate the finest brands put upon the market. He makes special brands to order for the trade and controls an extensive regular business in the city of Carlyle and vicinity. He owns the factory and a handsome residence. He is a K. of P, and a member of the Cigar Makers' International Union.

FRED. FEULNER, Dealer in Hardware, Stoves, Tinware, Copper and Sheet Iron Ware, Cutlery, Etc. Fairfax Street, Between 9th and 10th Streets.  - This reliable house was founded in 1884 by its present proprietor Mr. Fred. Feulner who is a practically experienced copper and tin smith. Prior to embarking in business here, Mr. Feulner worked at his trade in Hannibal and Clarksville Mo. He is a German by birth but was raised in Clinton County Ill. He has been on American soil since 1868 and has always been industrious and frugal hence his deservedly great success in business. The premises occupied for business purposes, comprise a substantial two story building 24x64 feet in dimensions the ware room and store being on the ground floor and the tin shop up stairs. He employs one assistant constantly and some times additional workmen are needed during busy seasons. Mr. Feulner is connected with the Carlyle Canning Company. He is an enterprising merchant and public spirited citizen who takes an interest in all measures conducive to the improvement of the City of Carlyle. He is a member of the C. K. of I.

BRIGGS & ROBINSON, Carlyle Saw Mill and Stave Factory. - What may be termed the secondary industries of Southern Illinois are growing to such dimensions and importance that they require many prominent firms and an army of men to meet the demand for their products. This is especially true of that which passes under the general title of Cooperage supplies. The firm o Briggs & Robinson are prominent in this line. The business had its inception years ago under the firm name of Abbot & Case. The present firm took control in 1889 and after adding many improvements to the plant have established business connections through which they can readily dispose of their entire product. This embraces, manufactured hardwood lumber, barrel headings, staves and dimension timber. The plant is in all respects complete and operated by a 30 h. p. steam engine and employs a force of fifteen experienced hands. The firm own twelve acres of land, five acres of which is covered by their plant and yards. They obtain their supply of raw material from the hardwood forests in the Kaskaskia valley south of Vandalia, and raft the logs to there gang-ways at the mill. The daily output of this plant is upwards of 15000 feet. Mr. C. F. Briggs is an Englishman by birth, but has been in America fifty-six years. He has traveled extensively in the south. Mr. E. Robinson is a resident of Venice, Ill. He is a represented in the active conduct of the business by his brother Mr. H. C. Robinson. Mr. J. W. Robinson a son of the junior partner is the foreman of the mills.

JOSEPH W. MADDUX. - The subject of this sketch is a native of Clinton County, born September 16th, 1825. His father, Zachariah Maddux, of Georgia emigrated to these parts before Illinois was admitted to the Union and was subsequently a member of the first state legislature. He was a regularly ordained minister of the M. E. church; our subject was the youngest of a family of seven children. After the death of his parents, Joseph W. Maddux was reared in the family of his cousin, Oliver Maddux. He received as good an education as the pioneer schools of fifty years ago could impart. He remained in the country at work upon the farm until 1847 when he went north into Minnesota, from thence in 1850 associated with others traveled by the overland route to Oregon, remaining five years on the Pacific coast mining in Northern California two years. In October, 1855, he returned to his native heath and engaged in the lumber business in Carlyle; the first establishment of the kind in this city. Mr. Maddux afterwards embarked in the merchandising business, buying and shipping grain and dealing in agricultural implements. During the past thirty years of his business life he has represented fire insurance companies. He has been agent for the Aetna Fire Insurance Co. of Hartford Conn., since 1860. He has been a member of the Town Council and of the Board of Education. Also Postmaster of Carlyle. Under President Harrison's administration he received the appointment of Government Meat Inspector at East St. Louis. He has been Chairman of the Republican Central Committee twenty years. He is custodian of the public scales.

OTTO RINK, Dealer in Watches, Clocks, Jewelry and Diamonds. - The leading representative in the line of jewelry in Carlyle is Mr. Otto Rink who established his business here in 1880. His residence of fourteen years at the County Seat has made him familiar with the demands and requirements of a large circle of friends and acquaintances. He occupies an attractive store on Fairfax street, north side public square and in all respects his establishment has a complete stock and equipment. Mr. Rink is from Lebanon where he learned his trade with Fred. Pesold.  He is recognized as an expert in his line, combining artistic taste and rare skill. He is a member of several social organizations.

H. C. NORCROSS, Wholesale Produce Dealer and Shipper, Eggs, Poultry and Game, Etc. -Eighth Street, Opposite County Court House. - In the history of our modern commercial systems, within recent years particularly, may be noticed many unique and original features of development. These may be traced to individual enterprise and business foresight, or originate in speculative mercantile combinations. In either case they are powerful elements in the promoting of commercial activity. A case in point has come under our notice among the younger circle of merchants in the thriving city of Carlyle. Mr. H. O. Norcross, yet a minor, has with commendable energy embarked in business on his own account since 1890, as a wholesale dealer in and shipper of the important products of the field and farm, embracing eggs poultry and game. His plan is unique, as he makes the merchant from whom he buys, the middle man and thereby relieves the latter of the burden of storage and sale, keeping a close watch on market values and disposing of his stock in trade to the dealer at home, who is otherwise engaged and also supplying promptly to those in adjacent towns who are not familiar with market questions. By this means the merchant's the producer's and the dealer's respective interest are promptly and carefully subserved and a wider field for business operations created. The consumer obtaining an ample supply of fresh commodities at a moderate cost. Mr. Norcross is also sole agent for and dealer in the Standard Oil Co.'s products and handles all the popular makes of the bicycle, in which latter department of his business he is the leading exponent in this part of the state, being himself an expert bicyclist and authority on the use and management of the silent "steed. " He exhibits samples of the different styles for both ladies and gentlemen at his place of business and has facilities or making repairs and furnishing supplies when needed. Mr. Norcross' wide acquaintance and popularity among all classes of the community has induced the publishers of the leading newspapers east and west to secure his services as their representative in Carlyle notably, the Republic, St. Louis Chronicle, St. Louis Post - Dispatch, Chicago Herald, Chicago Tribune, Chicago Inter-ocean, New York Herald and Cincinnati inquirer. He is also editor of the  "Union Banner" of Carlyle, a local journal of considerable merit. Mr. Norcross was born and raised in this city. He is an active member of the K. of P. and the M. W. of A. He is not yet twenty-one years old but displays the energy and tact in business and social life that belongs to a man of middle age. He embarked in business at the age of sixteen years. Mr. Norcross, by permission refers to the following prominent business men and citizens of Carlyle, Rufus N. Ramsay, Charles P. Norris, G. C. Barkley.

PETER HATTERSHIRE, Proprietor, Commercial Hotel, Corner 8th and Franklin Streets. - Few, if any of the special features of the city play a more important part than the hotel. The Commercial hotel occupies buildings originally designed for residence and mercantile purposes but subsequently remodeled for hotel accommodation. They occupy an area 50x100 feet. Mr. Hattershire has had wide experience in hotel keeping and kindred occupations. Personally he is eminently qualified in hotel management. In disposition he is patient and quiet, in demeanor gentlemanly and painstaking in his efforts to please. He also devotes some of his spare time to other occupations, notably that of bill posting in which he is an adept. He is also interested in the logging industry on the Kaskaskia river. He has traveled extensively and is in all respects a practical self made business man and a popular citizen.