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Trenton is one of the prettiest little towns in the State of Illinois. It is located on the main line of the Baltimore and Ohio Railway, 28 miles east of East St Louis and is the first City in the County from the west.

It has a population of approximately 2,000 inhabitants, everyone industrious and energetic.

The village of Trenton was laid out May 14, 1855, by Alva LEWIS. William LEWIS laid out an addition March 12th, 1856. Other additions followed in the course of time. About two years before the town was laid out, a man by the name of BUCKMAN built a small shanty on the south side of the railroad, opposite the present depot building. The trains stopped there. BUCKMAN bought and shipped grain. He prevailed on the government to establish a post office there, called Trenton.

The oldest house in Trenton was built by William LEWIS for a farm residence in 1836. It is a brick building and is situated on Main Street. In 1882 it was the property of Mrs. WELLS. Captain A. H. JOHNSON built the first house there after the town was laid out, a frame residence, in the early part of 1855. Joseph HAWKE opened the first store. Mathias LEONHARD started the first hotel and Mr. SHEPHERD was the first blacksmith who operated a shop in Trenton.

The city today has many enterprising business houses, among them are: Two banks, one condensing plant, one mine, three barbers, seven saloons, three hotels, two restaurants, one coffee and tea concern, one jeweler, one large hardware concern, two milliners, two livery sables, three blacksmiths, two implement houses, one large exclusive shoe store, one brewery, several doctors, a telephone exchange, a light plant, fine water works, one furniture and undertaking establishment, to drug stores, to clothing stores, two meat markets, one newspaper, one bakery, one cigar maker, one cement block plant, one large flour mill, one saw mill, one grist mill, one elevator, one tailor, several smaller concerns. Trenton has churches of many denominations and several schools.

The streets of Trenton are wide and laid at right angles. They are shaded with ornamental shade trees, which add much to the beauty of this ideal residence town.

There is plenty of room for the location of factories and Trenton needs several of them. Ample switching facilities will be made for any factory wishing to locate in the city. The Commercial Club will give all particulars to any one desiring to locate or build a factory of any kind. Write to them, they have literature of all kinds pertaining to the city and its resources, its advantages and possibilities.

W. T. CARR is president of the Commercial Club and a banker. He is connected with the Farmers’ Bank of Trenton. Mr. A. M. LEONHARD is secretary of the Club and is also connected with the same bank.

Trenton is also a city of beautiful homes. Some of the finest homes in the county are located here.

One thing certain, Trenton has the finest business buildings in the county as a whole.

Church of Purification B. V. M.

The first Catholics settled here about 1859; they were John KRIEGER, Michael TRAGESSER, Mathias COLIGNON, John SCHEPPRING, Thomas MCMAHON, Michael VANINGER, Jacob RICHERT, George GLEICH, Jacob MEIER, etc.

The first priests to visit the early settlers were: P. PETERS of Highland, Ill., A. REINEKE of Breese Ill., Henry BOOCKER of Aviston, Ill. And they celebrated mass in the house of Thomas MCMAHON and in the public school.

The first resident pastor was Anton BREFELD, who

arrived March 15, 1868. He was succeeded by F. BONSEL August 25, 1879, until the present day.

The first and present brick church (42X60) of 200 seating capacity, was erected by the new settlers without 

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the help of a priest at the cost of $5,600.00 on Lots 5, 6 in Block 7, in 1864. To this 30 feet were added in 1885, by F. BONSEL at the cost of $3,200.00 and in 1900 a new tower and front were built at a cost of $5,100.00.

The two-story rectory (brick) was built by A. BREFELD at a cost of $4,000.00; the new addition by F. BONSEL, cost $4,500.00. It was completed in 1907.

First school, one-story brick house was erected in 1870, at Front and Sycamore street. New school room was added in 1879 by F. BONSEL at a cost of $350.00. A new

two-story brick school was built in 1902 by F. BONSEL at the cost of $8,300.00.

Two-story frame building on Lots 11 and 12, Block 6, by A. BREFELD, at the cost of $2,000.00. New two-story brick house and hospital on Lots 2, 3 and 4, Block 8, was erected in 1911, by F. BONSEL at the cost of $10,000.00.

The following societies exist in Purification B. V. M. Parish: St. Joseph’s Men sodality, St. Mary’s Altar Society, St. Aloysius Young Men’s Sodality, St. Agatha Young Ladies’ Sodality, Cath. Knights of Ill., Cath. Knights of America, St. Mary’s Children Sodality.

Families, 151 German, 4 English. Number of souls, 706. Children in school, 73 boys and 62 girls.

This parish has its own cemetery since 1869. Previous to that date Catholics were buried at the public cemetery.

Parish records were opened in 1864.

F. BONSEL was born May 24, 1850, in Ruethon, Westfalen, Germany, made his studies at Paderborn, Westfalen, and Louvain, Belgium, and was ordained at Mecheln, Belgium, May 26, 1877.

Trenton Milling Co.

The Trenton Mill was built in 1876, its capacity at that time was 150 barrels per day. Up to 1895 no improvements were made in the mill or the buildings, but during that year extensive alterations were made. The machinery was changed to modern makes and the capacity increased 200 barrels daily. In 1908 the capacity was increased to 800 barrels and in 1912 to 1,000 barrels per day. During the year 1912 the mill was entirely overhauled and the Great Western machinery installed. The mill was originally built and owned by Adam EMIG, Sr.

He was succeeded by EMIG and DUGGAR and later by Joseph HAUKE. The Trenton Milling Company was organized in 1805 with C. J. EISENMAYER as president and S. HAMMELL as secretary and treasurer. In 1899 EISENMAYER sold out to Adam EMIG. During the same year the following officers were elected and a new company formed which is doing business today: L. C. RIEMAN, president; A. B. HAMMEL, secretary and treasurer. Both the above named have been connected with the mill in different capacities ever since 1895. The mill is one of the largest in the central part of the state and ships flour and feed all over the Southern States. Its capacity is as follows: Five hundred barrels of flour and 500 barrels of corn meal per day. During the year 1912 the company shipped over 800 cars of flour and feed through out the Southern and Southeastern States. The brands manufactured by the company are as follows: "Trenton Leader," "Angel Food," "Easter Lily," "Trenton Star," and "Trenton Cream." In the meal line the following brands are made: "Brewer’s Grits," "Table Grits," "Cream Meal" and "Standard Meal." An elevator adjoining the mill has a capacity of 125,000 bushels of grain, soft winter wheat being the specialty. The mill is five stories in height and is a frame building. The company has its own cooperage shop and makes its own barrels. A force of from twenty to thirty men are employed in the mill and cooper shop the year around. The mill is located south of the tracks and is one of the principal industries in Clinton County.

First National Bank

The First National Bank was organized as a private bank in 1890 and was nationalized in 1912. Its capital is $25,000.00. The bank has a surplus and undivided profits of over $3,000. There are seven stockholders in the bank whose aggregate wealth is over $500,000. The officers are: Z. T. REMICK, president; C. J. STEINMETZ, vice-president, and C. W. EISENMAYER, cashier. The directors are: Z. T. REMICK, C. W. EISENMAYER, H. C. EISENMAYER, William REISS and Edward HARPSTRITE. The bank is located in one of the finest buildings in the city and is equipped with a Hall’s Safe and Lock Company’s vault and a Victor safe.

The safe is screw door, timelock style and is made of manganese steel, burglar-proof. Below will be found a complete statement of the condition of the bank at the close of business early in the year 1913: 

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Loans and Discounts.................$ 28,697.35
United States Bonds.................  22,330.73
State, County and Municipal Bonds...  75,382.26
Cash................................  18,576.13
Due from other banks................  32,363.84
Deposits with U. S. Treasurer.......    937.50
Furniture and fixtures..............   1,050.00                                         ------------


Capital.............................$ 25,000.00
Surplus.............................   1,500.00
Undivided profits...................   1,471.78
Deposits............................ 132,163.10
United Slates Postal Savings deposits    452.93
Circulation.........................  13,750.86

The Farmers’ Bank of Trenton

The above bank was organized in 1905 and is the oldest bank in the city as a state or national bank. It has been under the same management ever since its organization. Mr. W. T. CARR, president; S. HAMMEL, vice-president, and A. M. LEONHARD, cashier, are the organizers of the bank and

have been connected with it since its organization. D. D. SCHAEFFER is assistant cashier. The bank owns its own building, which was erected at a cost of $16,000. It is a three-story brick building, and the second floor is devoted to offices while the third floor is used as a lodge hall. It is the finest building in the city. The bank is equipped with a Victor safe and vault. The safe is a triple-time-lock safe,

burglar proof. The bank also rents out safety deposit boxes at a rate of from $2.00 to $5.00 per year. The directors of the bank besides the officers, are the following: A. W. CARTER, A. J. TSCHUDY, Thos. FISCHER, F. LEONHARD, Jacob KUHN, Jr., and Philip MANN. A comparative statement of the total resources for the past eight years is herewith shown: 1905, $126,047.12; 1906, $190,977.65; 1907, $205,027.37; 1908, $223,921.48; 1909, $255,600.22; 1910 $252,467.68; 1911, $262,468.50, and 1912, $291,778.39. Below will be found a complete statement of the bank dated January 1913:


Loans and Discounts.................$ 90,644.92
Bonds and Securities................ 135,585.95
Cash and Due from banks.............  43,150.51
Real Estate, bank building..........  16.000.00


Capital.............................$ 25,000.00
Surplus Fund (earned)...............  10,000.00
Undivided Profits, net..............   5,447.36
Deposits............................ 227.664.02
Due to other banks..................  15,000.00

BASSLER Brewing Co.

The above named brewery is the only one in Clinton County and to say that they have the bulk of the business would be putting it mild. As a matter of fact they have the largest trade of any other brewery in that section of the state. The brewery is located about one mile from the center of the city and has a capacity of 8,000 barrels a year. They make draught beer exclusively and sell their product all over the county. There is not a town or village in Clinton County where you cannot find the BASSLER Beer, so popular is the brand. The brewery was started many yeas ago by Paul BASSLER, and in 1900 August BASSLER bought the interest of his father and took his brothers into partnership with him. They are: Jacob and Philip BASSLER and Edward DESSLER. The company

supplies six of the Trenton saloons and all the saloons of Summerfield and Aviston and from one to three saloons in every other town in the county. The company also manufacture ice, the ice manufacturing capacity is 25 tons a day. The plant is up to date and equipped with all the very latest machinery obtainable. The BASSLER Brothers were raised in Trenton. August, the manager was born in 1867. Mr. Paul BASSLER, the original owner of the brewery, was born in Germany and took over the brewery in the 60’s. It had been conducted on a small scale prior to that. There are six employes in the brewery. August is also brewmaster. Two teams are engaged to carry the beer around town and to the surrounding towns. There is only one brand of draught beer made.

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J. M. COLLIGNON and Sons

The above named firm manufactures cement blocks. The firm is the only one of its kind in the city. They have been engaged in this work for the past five years. Five years ago the sons, Louis F. and Leo. were taken in as partners. The company operates a power plant and make all kinds of cement blocks, posts, urns and in fact, anything that can be made from cement. They also build bridges and culverts, cement floors and garages. Foundations are also laid by this enterprising firm. Mr. COLLIGNON, Sr., has been a resident of Trenton for 52 years and was married in 1880 to Anna EMIG. The couple have ten children, eight of whom are living; they are four boys and four girls. Two of the daughters are married, one living in Jerseyville and the other in Trenton. One single daughter is living in Chicago. Of the sons, the two older ones are in the business with the father, one of them is conducting a moving picture show in Trenton and Beckemeyer and the other is engaged in the photograph business. All the pictures in the Trenton part of this history were taken by E. E., a son. The firm does a large business over the county and is one of the largest cement block manufacturers in Clinton County. They have done work all over the county during the past five years, and have contracts at present for work all around the city of Trenton.

LEONHARD Mercantile Co.

The LEONHARD Mercantile Company is the largest of its kind in Trenton. The store has been in existence for 57 years, having been started by F. LEONHARD, the present president of the firm, in 1856. Before that Peter EMIG operated the store on a small scale. Ten years ago Mr. LEONHARD took into partnership with him his two sons, E. P. and A. A., and the company was incorporated for $9,000.00. The firm handles dry goods, clothing, millinery, hats, caps and shoes, groceries, notions ladies ready-to-wear garments, flour, feed and produce and carries a complete line. The store occupies a building 50x80 feet and is a two-story brick structure, one of the best business buildings in the city. It is located one-half block west of the post office and in the very heart of the city. The store is one of the best stocked in the county and has been increasing its business for the past ten years. The yearly business done by this enterprising firm is away

above the average. Mr. F. LEONHARD has been a resident of Trenton for 58 years. He was formerly in the saloon business. He was married in 1868 to Miss Elizabeth EMIG and had nine children, five boys and four girls, all living. Four of the boys and one girl are married. Two of the married children live in Trenton.

GINZEL Mercantile Co.

The above named company was started by M. GINZEL fifty years ago as a small store. Today the firm owns a two-story brick building, 25x70 feet, and occupies two floors, so great has the business become since its foundation. In 1881 an addition was built to the building in order to make room for goods that were being bought. In 1887 the company was incorporated with George HARTLEY as president, Oscar GINZEL as vice president , and Alfred GINZEL as secretary and treasurer. The company is incorporated for $15,000. They handle everything that a large up to date department store carries in stock and the business done yearly by the firm is way up in the thousands of dollars. The store is one of the oldest in the city and has as large a list of customers as any store in Trenton. Mr. M. GINZEL was born in Reichenberg,

Bohemia, in 1836, and came to America in 1856. He immediately started into business while a young man and has climbed the ladder of success ever since. For a time after arriving in this country he traveled through the Southern States and finally in 1859 he located in Trenton. After being in business a short time in Trenton he went to Lebanon and started a business there, later returning to Trenton and opening a store in that city. The present store is the one he started then. There is a music department connected with the store in which all kinds of music is sold; this is under the management of Oscar GINZEL, an accomplished musician. Mr. Oscar GINZEL is also director of the Trenton orchestra and band and has been conductor of the same for several years.

Wilbert POOS

Mr. POOS conducts the largest and best equipped livery stable in the city. He has been in business three years, having started in 1909 for himself. He makes drives all over the county and to all nearby towns. He was born in Trenton in 1878 and for many years was not a resident of the city. This time he has been living in Trenton for seven years. He was married in 1901 to Irene SAPPINGTON. His livery barn is located on Main Street, east of REICHMAN’s saloon. Patronize him when you visit Trenton, he will treat you right.

Joseph GLANZNER and Son

The above named firm operate and conduct the only furniture and undertaking parlor in the city. It is one of the largest of its kind in the county. It was established in 1865 by Joseph GLANZNER and has been under the same management ever since. In 1912 the senior member of the firm retired and turned the business over to his son, John W. GLANZNER. Its rise is due to the fact that the owner of the firm was progressive and enterprising and that his business methods were honest and faithful.

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The company firm handles furniture, carpets, linoleum, rugs, trunks, moulding and other household goods and does embalming and undertaking. The firm employs the only embalmer in the city and has one of the finest funeral parlors in the state. Mr. Joseph GLANZNER was born in Germany in 1843 and came to America in 1854. He located in Trenton in 1859. He was married in 1873 and is the father of thirteen children, six of whom are living.

Five of them are married and one, a daughter Alma, remains at home. John Wesley, a son who is connected with the business, was married in 1902 to Mary WINTER and had three children, two of whom are living. The other children of Joseph GLANZNER are: Tillie, Elizabeth, Manda and Martha. Martha lives in Trenton, the others are married and are living in different parts of the state.

Trenton Steam Bakery

The Trenton Bakery has been in existence for the past five years under the present manager, J. J. HAMM. In 1908 he bought out the interests of METZGER and STEINMETZ and after overhauling the place, started into business with a vim. He has been successful and has built up one of the largest businesses of its kind in the county. He makes bread and baker goods of every description, and ships his products all over the southern and eastern part of the county. In connection with the bakery he also deals in candy, ice cream, confectionery, cigars, tobacco, pastry, post cards and souvenirs.

He makes a specialty of baking cakes and fancy pastry of all kinds for weddings, parties, etc. His trade is growing fast as he carries a fine line of goods. He has been a resident of Trenton all his life, having been born in the city in 1883.

The Trenton Sun

Trenton has only one newspaper, "The Sun." It is an independent weekly publication, issued every Thursday afternoon, and publishes practically all the news of interest of the county. Mr. Newton RULE, the editor and manager, has been editing the paper since December, 1912, having taken over the interests of the former owner, Henry MALLRICH. From the time of the sale up to February, 1912, Mr. RULE and as a partner T. B. SULLENS the latter sold out his interests and left the city to locate in another part of the country. The paper contains eight pages, is filled with the advertisements of the merchants of Trenton and good news of the city and all the surrounding towns and villages. The circulation is 1,000 and extending all over Southern Illinois and Clinton County. The office is also equipped with three fine job presses. The Sun is up to date in its printing department and has orders to be filled all the year around. Only the very best of work is turned out. Mr. RULE fills orders from many of the surrounding towns. He has been in the printing business for 29 years and has been located in Trenton 16 years. Previous to that he was in the same business in Lebanon, St. Clair County.


Mr. REICHMAN conducts the largest and best patronized saloon in the city. It is located on the main corner of the city and draws trade from every direction.

He has been in business in the city for the past four years, having bought out the interest and good will of J. C. BOCK. Previous to Mr. BOCK’s management the saloon was conducted by William KOEHLER. It is one of the pioneer saloons of the city. BASSLER Beer is on tap and also all kinds of bottled beer. Mr. REICHMAN also handles the very best of wines whiskies and cigars and has a very large and extensive trade. His leading brands of whiskey are Steinwender’s and Lee’s and the leading bottled beers, Hyde Park and Falstaff. There are two pool tables and one billiard table in the saloon, which serves as a model congregating place for the best young men in the city. Mr. REICHMAN is one of Trenton’s most progressive business men. He was born in Trenton in 1878. He was married six years ago to Cordelia BINZ. He was formerly connected with the mining business and also the iron business as a moulder. The saloon is likewise headquarters for hunters and sportsmen of all kinds.


Mr. RIEMANN conducts the only lumber yard in Trenton. It is located on the street facing the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad tracks and has been one of the principal business houses in the city. It is likewise one of

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the oldest establishments in Trenton. The yard was started in 1866 by John RIEMANN and Louis RIEMANN. In 1883 John RIEMANN bought out Louis and conducted the yard alone until 1889 when it was taken over by L. C. RIEMANN and Jacob KUHNS. The firm was then known as RIEMANN and KUHNS and incorporated in 1892. In 1912 Mr. RIEMANN bought the interests of his partner and has been in control of the yard himself every since. The yard is stocked with a full and complete line of lumber, lath, sash, doors, blinds, lime, cement, brick,

building blocks, posts, moulding, builder’s hardware and material. The stock carried varies from $6,000 to $10,000 and the yard has a capacity of 35 cars of lumber. Lumber is sold all over the entire section of the country around Trenton, and the business done by Mr. RIEMANN amounts to many thousands of dollars yearly. Mr. RIEMANN is also president of the Trenton Milling Company. He was born in Trenton in 1866, the year his father went into business in the city. He was educated in the schools of Trenton and was married in 1891 to Miss Lena STEINMETZ. Five children were born to the couple, two of whom have died; one boy and two girls are living and are at home with their parents. A son, Russell, is engaged with his father in the business.

George REBER

The city’s largest and most up to date drug store is conducted by the above named. Mr. REBER hails from St. Louis where he had been in the drug business since 1882 and was located on one corner for 28 years. He bought out the interests of W. T. CARR, president of the Farmers’ Bank of Trenton, who was also in the drug business, in April 1912. He handles a complete line of drugs, sundries, toilet articles, perfumes, stationery, souvenirs, post cards, soft drinks, cigars, tobacco, candles

and rubber goods. His store is located north of the GINZEL Mercantile Company’s place of business and is in the heart of the city. Mr. REBER is one of the best boosters of Trenton and is increasing his business every month.

He was born in Reading, Pa., in 1857; his early education was received in the schools of that city. He was married in 1885 to Mary Louise CRAWLEY. His is the proud father of three children, all of whom are living; they are two daughters and one son. The daughters, Virginia and Ethel, are at home with the parents, and the son, Charles G., travels for the Spaulding Sporting Goods Company of St. Louis. Mr. REBER is well liked by the people of Trenton and numbers his friends among the very best families of the city. He has been one of the most progressive business men in the city, ever since he located there and intends to boost for Trenton and its advantages as long as he remains there.

Union Meat Market

Of the two meat markets of Trenton the above is the largest. Arnold J. and Robert TSCHUDY conduct the market which is located on Main street near the principal corner in the city. The firm was established thirteen years ago by A. J. TSCHUDY and up to five years ago he was the sole owner. At that time he took into partnership with him, his brother Robert. The firm does its own killing, thereby serving its customers with the best of meats the year around. They also manufacture lard and sausage, and smoke meats of various kinds. They also

sell all kinds of salted meats. Their business indeed is very extensive. Mr. A. J. TSCHUDY formerly was engaged in the same business at Pocahontas, Ill. He was born in Highland in 1868. He was married in 1893 to Miss Louisa LEU and is the father of three children, all living, two boys and one girl. Robert was born in 1874 and was married in 1903 to Miss Lena BOESCHENSTEIN. He is the father of five children, all living; they are three boys and two girls. The TSCHUDY Brothers are very progressive and Trenton needs just such men as they are to boost the town.

EISENMAYER Grain Company

The EISENMAYER Grain Company was started in 1908 and has an elevator capacity of 30,000 bushels of grain, including corn, wheat, oats and other grains. The company buys and sells flour, grain and feed of all kinds. They also do custom grinding. The grinding capacity of the plant is 60 bushels per hour, enough to supply all the farmers and citizens of the city and surrounding county with their feed for cattle, horses, etc. The company

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ships annually about 100,000 bushels of grain to other markets. They are also agents for Kansas Hard Wheat Flour of different makes and sell to many merchants in the county. They also handle soft wheat flour and sell

wholesale and retail. Mr. August EISENMAYER is manager of the company and has been ever since the elevator was built.

Breese-Trenton Mining Co.

One of the largest companies and the largest mining concern in Clinton County is the Breese-Trenton Mining Company, with headquarters at Breese. The present company was established and incorporated in 1905 with Randolph SMITH as president, Henry HUMMERT, vice president and general manager. Three years ago the company held an election of officers and the only change

made was in the presidency. Mr. H. F. PIXLEY, president of the First National Bank of Flora, Illinois, was made president of the company. The annual output of the company’s mines are over 600,000 tons, the daily output averaging as follows: Beckemeyer mine, 1,500 tons; Breese mine 1,100 tons, and the Trenton mine, 1,000 tons.

The largest of the three mines is located at Beckemeyer, a small town east of Breese. The Breese mine has a coal chute in connection and practically all trains over the Baltimore and Ohio are coaled at that mine.

The three mines are 450 feet deep and employ about 250 men in each mine. Several kinds of coal are mined, among them being lump, mine-run, screenings, slack, nut and egg.

Practically 15,000 cars of coal are shipped out of the county every month, while many thousands of tons are sold within the county to the several large mills and other manufacturing plants located in the different cities and towns. The coal is of the bituminous variety and is advertised all over Southern Illinois and adjacent territory. The company employs in all about 750 men.

Mr. HUMMERT, the vice-president and general manager, is president of the State Bank of Breese and one of the most prominent men in Clinton County. He has charge of the three mines. He was formerly connected with the old Breese Coal and Mining Company, a firm now extinct.

The general offices of the company are located at 415 Locust Street, St. Louis, Mo.

The total value of the land and buildings of the 1,000,511 farms shown in the 1910 census was $6,330,000,000, and the amount of debt was $1,726,000,000 or 27.3 per cent of the value.

Between 1900 and 1910 the farms operated by owners increased 8.1 per cent in number, while those operated by tenants increased 16.3 per cent.

Tenant farmers constitute 37 per cent of all farmers at present.

Tenant farms have a higher average value of land and buildings per acre of land than farms operated by owners.

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Fourteen thousand pounds of goat hair were sold during the statistical year April, 1909, to April, 1910. This was valued at $4,008.

The total value of domestic animals sold during the year was $132,623,000, and that of animals slaughtered on farms, $14,438,000.

Twenty-nine thousand farms reported 155,846 colonies of bees on hand April 15, 1910.

Early in 1912 a Chicago firm bought ten thousand acres of timber land along the Lillooet river in British Columbia for seven hundred thousand dollars, the stumpage being valued at a dollar a thousand feet, board measure. A year later the timber passed into the hands of a corporation manufacturing agricultural implements, the stumpage bringing three dollars a thousand feet. British Columbia's temperature increased by a few degrees. A profit of two hundred per cent in a year pleased its riotous imagination.

The foreign countries which have contributed the largest number of farm operators to the United States are Germany, Sweden, Canada, Norway, England, Ireland, Austria, Denmark, and Russia, in the order named. It should be noted that this order by no means corresponds to the order in which the various foreign countries have contributed to the total population of the United States.

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